Positive ARCO coffee Health Benefits

This is a collection of positive coffee health benefits taken from various sources. It is not intended to be a complete collection of information about coffee and health. It is not an endorsement of our coffee.

No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake:

A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population Sophie C. Killer, Andrew K. Blannin mail, Asker E. Jeukendrup Published: January 09, 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084154 Abstract It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. Citation: Killer SC, Blannin AK, Jeukendrup AE (2014) No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population. PLoS ONE 9(1): e84154. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084154 Editor: Dylan Thompson, University of Bath, United Kingdom Received: August 14, 2013; Accepted: November 12, 2013; Published: January 9, 2014 Copyright: © 2014 Killer et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: Funding for this study was provided by the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC). ISIC is a non-profit organization, devoted to the study and disclosure of science related to coffee and health. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Harvard Health Publications is the media and publishing division of the Harvard Medical School of Harvard University. With their permission, we have the following quotes from their Harvard Health Letter article, "What is it about coffee?" published in January, 2012.

"Research is showing benefits for everything from depression to liver disease."

"...study results suggestive of health benefits from coffee keep on coming in. In 2011, researchers reported findings that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of depression among women, a lower risk of lethal prostate cancer among men, and a lower risk of stroke among men and women. Go back a little further, and you'll come across reports of possible (it's not a done deal) protective effects against everything from Parkinson's disease to diabetes to some types of cancer."

"Caffeine has been studied more than any other ingredient in coffee, and it tends to get credit if the body part benefited is the brain. But coffee contains literally a thousand different substances, and some of the lesser lights are thought to be responsible for healthful effects in other parts of the body. Some studies show caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee as having the same effect, which suggests that something else in coffee is involved."

"Coffee: A disease-by-disease report card

Alzheimer's disease Human and animal studies show hints of protection. Some preliminary evidence suggests activity against beta-amyloid plaque that may have a causative role in Alzheimer's.

Cancer Studies suggest a lower risk for some cancers (endometrial, aggressive prostate, estrogen-negative breast), but not others (esophageal). Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances could be responsible for possible anticancer activity.

Diabetes Effects on insulin and blood sugar levels that would promote diabetes seem to be temporary. Regular use is associated with lower risk, and high intake (3–6 cups a day) seems to have a greater effect. Protection may come from increases in the hormone adiponectin and other factors that affect insulin and blood sugar levels.

Heart attack Coffee drinking increases some factors (homocysteine) associated with higher risk. But moderate consumption (1–3 cups a day) has been linked to a small decrease in risk. The evidence for a possible protective effect is stronger for women.

Liver disease Coffee drinking is associated with lower levels of enzymes that indicate liver damage and inflammation. Coffee may improve response to some treatments for hepatitis C. Findings suggest some protection against liver cancer. Cafestol and kahweol, substances found in unfiltered coffee, may be responsible for liver benefits.

Parkinson's disease Studies show a moderate (25%) decrease in risk for coffee drinkers. The effect is less in women. Research has found evidence of activity in the part of the brain affected by Parkinson's.

Stroke Moderate consumption (3–4 cups a day) is associated with lower risk. But chance of a stroke may increase immediately after intake, particularly among infrequent consumers."

Depression A study suggests that coffee not only wakes people up, but also may offer some protection against depression. What's less clear is why this might be. Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health and Brigham and Women's Hospital analyzed data collected from nearly 51,000 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study, all free of depression in 1996. The researchers then determined how many of the women had developed depression a decade later and compared their caffeine intake to determine whether it affected risk. (They also controlled for other health and lifestyle factors such as weight, cigarette smoking, and exercise.) By 2006, 2,607 women were diagnosed with depression or had started taking antidepressants. The researchers found an inverse dose-response relationship between caffeine intake and mood: the more caffeine a woman ingested per day, the lower the likelihood that she developed depression during the study period. Women who drank the most caffeinated coffee per day were 20% less likely to develop depression than women who drank the least. Harvard Medical Health Letter, March 2012, Why Coffee Perks People Up

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